Chemical Compounds Defined and Classified

Chemical Compounds

The periodic table has the purest chemicals and elements. Most of those on the list can be found naturally. That said, what we come across daily and use are chemical compounds. A chemical compound combines two or more elements that can be broken down into simpler substances through chemical means. The broken compounds have different properties from those of their component elements.

Classification of Chemical Compounds.

As said earlier, chemical compounds are formed by elements that bond together. These bonds are metallic, covalent, and ironic.

Molecular Compound

This is a compound where molecules bind together through a covalent bond. When two or more atoms are combined through a chemical bond electrically, they form a neutral group known as a molecule. When the electrical charge decreases, then molecules are separated from ions. 

When a molecule is comprised of atoms derived from one chemical element, it is homonuclear. An example is O2. If the chemical compound consists of more than one element, it’s a heteronuclear such as H2O. Hydrogen or ionic bonds that link atoms and complexes by non-covalent interactions are not deemed single molecules. 

A covalent bond emerges where a pair of hydrogen atoms share two electrons. An electron pair is distributed among atoms through a covalent bond, also a chemical bond. Another name for electron pairs is bonding or shared pairs. At the same time, the firm equilibrium of attractive and repulsive forces among atoms during the distribution of electrons is known as covalent bonding.

Ionic Compounds

Ionic compounds are held together by ionic bonds. Ionic bonding is electrostatic forces held which hold ions together. These ions make up an ionic compound which is also a chemical compound. In this case, the compound is neutral but consists of cations that are positively charged ions and anions that are negatively charged. Examples of these ions are sodium chloride which is sodium (Na+), and chloride (Cl-). There is also the polyatomic class, ammonium carbonate, which is ammonium (NH+) and carbonate (CO2-3). Single ions found in an ionic compound, in most cases, have various closet neighbors, so they do not form part of the molecule. They are an alternative part of a flowing 3-d network in a crystalline structure.

See also  Ways School Leaders Can Motivate and Help Teachers

Ionic compounds consisting of hydrogen ions (H+) are grouped as acids, while those having hydroxide or primary ions oxide are classified as bases. Additionally, ionic compounds deprived of these ions are known salts formed by acid-base reactions. Ionic compounds may be derived from their basic ions through vaporization of their solvent, freezing, and precipitation. This formation can also be done through an electron transfer reaction or a solid-state reaction of reactive metals with non-reactive metals, like halogen gases.

The high melting and boiling points in ionic compounds are hard and weak. When solids, they insulate electrically but become highly conductive when liquefied or dissolved as the ions are mobilized.

Intermetallic Compound

This is a class of metallic alloy that displays a crystal structure by forming a solid-state compound. The bond is known as a metallic bond and displays definite stoichiometry.

The elements found on the periodic table are purest and can be found in nature. When two or more of these elements combine, they form a chemical compound. The types of chemical compounds include covalent, metallic, and ionic.

Facebook Comments Box
Loading Facebook Comments ...